REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA -- Minister of Environment and Forestry (LHK), Siti Nurbaya, led Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia (DELRI) to present crucial insights of COP26 Glasgow during “The July Ministerial Meeting COP26 UNFCCC”, on Sunday - Monday (25-26 July 2021).
The hybrid meeting held by British Government as the host of COP26 UNFCCC is aimed to allow Ministers of Environment from UNFCCC countries to gather and discuss crucial points of COP26, which will be held in November at Glasgow.
The meeting is divided into five sections based on the main topics in COP26 UNFCCC. The five topics include: Scaling-up Adaption; Keeping 1.5° C alive; Loss and Damage; Finalizing the Paris Rulebook – Article 6; and Mobilizing Finance.
During Session I “Scaling – up Adaption”, Minister Siti Nurbaya, as the head of Delegation of the Republic of Indonesia, delivered a statement that for Indonesia adaptation agenda is as important as mitigation in the efforts to control climate change. Indonesia has set a Road Map of Climate Change Adaptation until 2013, as cited on Updated NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution).
“We also actively involve people through Climate Village Program (ProKlim), restoration of mangrove ecosystem and agroforestry as a working step of climate adaptation. We integrate work programs of ministries/agencies and sectoral subjects in this program, including working with local government, private sectors, local figure, and citizen,” Minister Siti said.
Indonesia is committed towards climate change adaptation. The minister also presented the examples of climate change adaptation that have been implemented in Indonesia, such as policy, program, guidelines, tools, and action. It shows that Indonesia is led by example. Indonesia expects that the outcome of COP26 is an agreement between countries for Global Goal Adaptation (GGA).
During the meeting, Minister Siti delivered her hopes for the increasing quantity, quality, and predictability of financing for adaptation. It includes financial accessibility for local action. As a big developing country, Indonesia needs a big resource.
“I want to highlight that Climate Actions need strategic policy and financing cooperation between stakeholders in both national and global level. We are actively pushing to obtain bigger support for climate financing, including Fiscal Policy and Increasing Access to Global Finance,” Minister Siti said.
Furthermore, during the discussion of the second topic “Keeping 1,5° C”, Minister Siti said one of the goals of Paris Agreement is to limit the increasing of global temperature up to 1.5° C. Expecting the outcome of COP26 and identifying the next step is needed to tackle the issue. It will significantly decrease the risk and impact of climate change.
In terms of climate change control action, Minister Siti said that Indonesia is very serious, as seen from “Indonesia FoLU Net-sink 2030" initiatives. This ambitious target will be equipped with manual operation which is targeted to be finished by the end of 2021.
The climate change action in non-FOLU sector, especially energy, is carried out through renewable energy implementation by cooperating with the industry, such as the development of industrial park in North Kalimantan. Energy sector also targets phasing out coal power plants gradually, implementing waste to energy, developing biomass energy, hydropower, floating and rooftop solar PV, geothermal energy, and converting diesel power plants to gas and renewable energy.
Related to the expected target from COP26, Indonesia is calling for developed countries to take a lead. Considering that the LTS, which was delivered during UNFCCC along with the Updated NDC on July 2021, provides guidance for subsequent NDC, Indonesia sees that the new mandate on LTS is no longer needed as an outcome of COP26.
Minister Siti explained that learning from the status of NDC/Updated NDC and Long Term Strategy, and from the experience of preparing those documents, Indonesia sees that the leadership of developed countries is far more important. So does providing implementing tools for developing countries for implementation of NDC and long term strategy.
“The steps must be reflected through the outcome of COP26, detailing the follow ups of Synthesis Report NDC with support needs and gap analysis as well as referring to its recommendations,” Minister Siti said.
For the third and fourth sessions “The July Ministerial Meeting COP26 UNFCCC”, Vice Minister of Environment and Forestry, Alue Dohong, delivered Indonesia’s intervention towards certain topics.
During the third session "Loss and Damage", Vice Minister Alue explained how Indonesia sees the forming of the Santiago Network for Loss and Damage (SNLD). He emphasized on three important elements, which are goals, operational, and function of SNLD, particularly for developing countries.
“The role of SNLD is expected to become a catalyst of technical support for developing countries in order to prevent, minimize, and overcome loss and damage. Its operation is based on the country-driven principle and its function reflects the perspective of stakeholders’ needs, especially developing countries,” Vice Minister Alue explained.
For them to fast and effective, the operational of SNLD should be carried out through the right institutional arrangement. Some technical and financial issues should be fully discussed to ensure that SNLD is operated effectively.
Related to the support of UNFCCC towards SNLD, Indonesia highlights four issues. First, SNLD must be well connected and integrated in institutional arrangements under the Convention and Paris Agreement. Then, SNLD must have a dynamic relationship with experts, especially for choosing the best way of technical help.
“We are also considering the important role of Disaster and Risk Reduction and humanitarian community to support SNLD function. They have built a strong capacity in giving technical help in the field. Lastly, the function of SNLD should be not only connecting actors and needs, but also coordinating and accessing assistance and its implementing tools,” Vice Minister Alue said.
Next, during the fourth session “Finalizing the Paris Rulebook - Article 6", Vice Minister Alue said that the resolution of COP26 Glasgow towards Article 6 must contain the needed elements for next year operations. It also applies to working program for the issues that are needed for the implementation of this article.
Indonesia delivers its proposal for joint solution so that Article 6 can be operated soon. The proposal contains:
First, boosting ambition and implementation of NDC target through cooperation and financial support approaches between member countries by ensuring the achievement of environmental integrity from mitigating action that has been carried out. It must also refer to TACCC principles (transparent, accurate, complete, comparable, and consistent) and based on national circumstances.
Second, to prevent double claiming of emission reduction during CDM transition to Article 6.4 mechanisms, corresponding adjustment will be carried out using the best methodology for baseline forming, transparent report, and based on national circumstances.
Third, Indonesia is not approved to the transition result of CDM CER Unit generated before 2020 because it will lessen the ambition and investment. However, Indonesia agrees that CDM activity is transitioned into Article 6.4 mechanisms as long as fulfilling eligibility criteria of Article 6.4.
Fourth, provision of funds for adaptation can be done using SoP (Share of Proceed) in the form of Adaptation Fund in Article 6.4 mechanisms. Meanwhile, in Article 6.2, provision of funds for adaptation can be done through agreement of both cooperating parties.
Fifth, besides market mechanism in Article 6.2 and 6.4 on implementing NDC, it is also important to boost non-market mechanism in Article 6.8 PA.
The important thing is how to finalize work program through non-market voluntary cooperation for NDC implementation.
Sixth, Indonesia also encourages Article 6 Paris Agreement to be adopted in COP26 Glasgow, considering the role of Article 6 is very important to support ambition and implementation of NDC to reach the decreasing of global temperature up to 1.5° C.
“Let’s cooperate for beneficial result and giving clear and constructive political instruction to the negotiators. That way, we can reach agreement based on equity and equality, so that we can adopt the long pending agreement on Article 6 Paris Agreement," Vice Minister Alue said.
On the last session, Minister Siti Nurbaya delivered Indonesian Intervention for “Mobilizing Finance". She emphasized that Indonesia urged developed countries to fulfill financing commitments to support developing countries implementing NDC. Moreover, developed countries are also mandated to provide financial support, technology, enhancement capacity for developing countries to reach its ambition. This financing must have a clear notes and trusted for both that has been realized and the remaining amount.
To reach the goal, Minister Siti said that some matters should come to attention. It is easing access towards climate financing for developing countries to reach NDC ambition and building their Long Term Strategy. Indonesia also see that Long Term Climate Finance (LTF) must be continued.
“We hope COP26 can increase the ambition or efforts of developed countries. This increasing ambition can include fulfillment of numbers and certainty of climate financing mobilization from various sources, as well as balancing funding between mitigation and adaptation,” Minister Siti said.
COP26 Glasgow is also a moment to start discussing New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG). For Indonesia, NCQG should reflects actual needs and ensure the funding is going to developing countries.
“We hope that COP26 can set the timeline, indicator,
“We hope that COP26 can set clearer timeline, indicator, and milestone, including the evaluation of NCQG. The indicator and its rules must be clear so that every parties can understand it,” she said.
The discussion of NCQG can start from political and technical perspective. Multilateral or both formal and informal bilateral can be used as an input. The process must be inclusive and transparent.
NCQG should be more ambitious, agreeable, and understandable for both developed and developing countries. It should also be balance on utilizing climate funding for mitigation and adaptation.
Closing the intervention, Minister Siti said that she believes the result of COP26 will be beneficial. “We are waiting for further involvement in an inclusive process from every parties towards COP26 in Glasgow,” she said.
During the meeting, Minister Siti Nurbaya was accompanied by Vice Minister Alue Dohong, Director General of Climate Change Control Laksmi Dhewanthi as NFP UNFCCC, Director General of Sustainable Forest Management Agus Justianto, Director General of Forest Planology and Environmental Governance Ruandha Agung, Senior Advisor Efransyah, Deputy of Coordinating Ministry of Maritime and Investment Nanny Hendiarti, Director of Economic and Environmental Development of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Hari Prabowo, delegation from Coordinating Ministry of Economics, and related officials from Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Delegation from Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources and Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries were also attending the meeting virtually.