REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA — Indonesia is committed to decrease Greenhouse Gas Emission (GRK) up to 29 percent using national resources, and decrease emission up to 41 percent through international support by 2030. With target around 11 percent, energy is the main sector that holds important role in reaching Indonesia Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) after forestry sector, which holds the target of 17 percent. The commitment cannot be separated from the ratification of Paris Agreement in Laws no 16/2016.
In order to reach energy independence and sovereignty through knowledge and understanding of climate change and renewable energy issues and its implementation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) held Climate Corner Discussion with the theme “Synergy of Energy and Climate Change” on Wednesday (30/6).
In his speech, Director General of Research, Development and Innovation Agency Agus Justianto stated that synergy of energy and climate change is a keyword for joint effort to form energy transition inclusively.
“We can all be actors and actively involved in the transition. The awareness to minimize the usage of fossil energy source by encouraging development and usage of renewable energy will contribute positively to decrease climate change and its impact,” Agus said.
A member of National Energy Council (DEN), Satya Widya Yudha, said that in the NDC, energy sector is targeted to contribute to emission reduction in the amount of 314 million tonnes CO2e by 2030 without foreign help. In the other side, the target of emission reduction in National Energy Plan (RUEN) is around 745 million tonnes CO2e by 2030. Different demands cause a different average assumption of economic growth. The DEN is mandated by the President to make Grand Strategy of National Energy, which is expected to renew RUEN by considering the latest factors.
“We will synchronize NDC and RUEN even though they have different timeframe. They have similar direction, which is to sharpen the reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emission. Of course it will consider similar macro assumptions so that the demand will be similar,” Satya said.
Director of Climate Change Mitigation, Emma Rachmawaty, said renewable energy is the second contributor to the reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Indonesia. At the same time, the energy sector is also the second biggest contributor for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emission. Indonesia has set the implementation of the first NDC in January 1, 2021. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry, along with other ministries and related parties, are currently drafting the updated NDC paired with Katowice Package, and also drafting Long Term Strategy - Low Carbon and Climate Resilience (LTS-LCCR) 2050 as a guide for Global Stock-take in 2023 and then followed by the transparency of NDC report in 2024 to reach the NDC target in 2030.
“We will focus on power sub sector because it os very dominant in decreasing Greenhouse Gas Emission in energy sector. Besides that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU), electric car, and B30 will help speed up energy transition and Net Zero Emission. Regulation becomes a key to determine ambitious future targets,” Emma said.
Chairman of Indonesia Renewable Energy Society, Surya Darma, explained that the world is entering transition era of renewable energy. Energy transition 4.0 is marked by the usage of digital energy such as smart grid and renewable energy transformation. Then, energy transition 5.0 will be dominated by the usage of renewable energy, such as solar cells and electric cars.
“We are one step ahead. One year faster to reach our target of renewable energy. Indonesia Renewable Energy Society is designing strategy of Indonesia Renewable Energy 50/50, which is the achievement of renewable energy by 50 percent and net zero emission in 2050. It is designed to welcome G20 in 2022,” Surya explained.
Meanwhile, Executive Director of People Centered Business and Economic Initiative, Tri Mumpuni, said that Indonesia must provide clean energy that is accessible for people. If government gives a space for people with the right financial support and regulation, Indonesia will be able to alleviate poverty and narrow down economic inequality.
“There are many energy projects that is too big, then handed down to people with top-down system. In the end, it could not be continued. The best technology is one that is the closest to people. So, renewable energy must be community based,” Tri said.
Chairman of Indonesian Biomass Energy Society (MEBI), Djoko Winarno, said that Indonesia has a great potential in biomass and it can be a choice of renewable energy. If the feedstock comes from waste, the garbage piling will be decreased and thus decreasing methane gas from Greenhouse Gas Emission. If biomass resource is planted in critical land such as ex-mining land, it will help decreasing global warming.
“Biomass is the only renewable energy that can be taken everywhere. It is also more stable and ready for 24 hours,” Djoko said.
During the discussion, Senior Advisor of the Minister of Environment and Forestry, Soeryo Adiwibowo, said that, besides inclusivity, regulation and governance are needed to boost synergy to develop renewable energy and reach the achievement points of Sustainable Development Goals. The technology of renewable energy is basically pluralism in nature (solar, water, wind, co-firing biomass, tide, co-firing, waste, geothermal).
The discussion guided by Expert of Minister of Environment and Forestry, Arief Yuwono, was attended by more than 300 participants from Ministries/Agencies, non-governmental organizations, universities, private sectors, and individual.